Ulwazi oluncinci malunga ne-aluminium

Iinyani ze-luminum zikunika ulwazi malunga nezinto zendalo ezisetyenziswa kwiindidi ezininzi zamashishini. IAluminiyam ithathwa njengezinto ezipholileyo. Yinto yanamhla, inciphile, yomelele kwaye ithambile. Ungayifumana i-aluminium esetyenziselwa ukwenza i-can, ibhotile kunye nezinye iimveliso ezininzi. Nazi iinyani ezinomdla malunga nealuminiyam…

Mhlawumbi, awunakuyazi loo nto ::

Ngaphezulu kwekhulu leminyaka eyadlulayo, ikilo yealuminiyam ibiza ngaphezulu kwekhulu leerubhu.

Ngo-1899, izazinzulu zaseBritani zazisa kuDmitrii Mendeleev isikali, esenziwe ngegolide kunye nealuminiyam. Ngoku, ikhilogramu yale ntsimbi ixabisa ngaphantsi kwe-ruble. Kwisiqingatha sokuqala senkulungwane yethu, ukuveliswa kwealuminiyam yehlabathi kuye kwanda ngaphezulu kwamaxesha angama-250, okwangoku kufikelela kwiitoni ezizizigidi ezi-5; ngokwemigaqo yevolumu, ukuveliswa kwealuminium kulwindawo yesibini emva kwemveliso yensimbi.

Ialuminium ingaphezulu kwama-2,5 amaxesha ilula kunesinyithi, amaxesha ama-3 - ubhedu, amaxesha ama-4 - isilivere. Kwiqondo lokushisa eliqhelekileyo, i-aluminium ayisi rust emanzini, ayisihambi emoyeni, kwaye iyamelana kakuhle nesenzo se-nitrogen, isalfure, ikhabhoni; umhlaba wentsimbi ugqunywe ngefilimu emncinci yokukhusela oxide. Ukudibana nee-halogens, i-alkalis ye-caustic, i-sulfuric kunye ne-hydrochloric acid, ukwenza ityuwa. Uzinzile kwizisombululo ze-acetic kunye ne-phosphoric acid, kodwa utshatyalaliswe ngamanzi e-ammonia. Isiqwenga se-aluminium, esityiweyo kwi-nitric acid exutywe, sijamelana neendawo ezinobushushu bemichiza.

Isinyithi esimhlophe eblue, enyibilika nge-660 ° C, inwebeka kakuhle ukuya kwi-wire (i-10,000m ubude yencingo enobunzima obungama-270g kuphela kwaye inokungena kwibhokisi yomdlalo) kwaye ishukuma ngokulula ibe ziishiti ezahlukeneyo.

Ukudibana kunye nesixa esincinci sezinye izinyithi (kwaye zenza ialloys eziphantse zonke izinyithi) kukonyusa amandla ealuminiyam. Ngaphezu kwe-alloys ezahlukeneyo ezingama-200 ziyaziwa, kwaye inani labo liyanda minyaka le, kwaye umgangatho uphucukile. Esona sicelo sesona sine-duralumin, ukongeza kwi-aluminium iqulathe malunga ne-5% yobhedu, i-magnesium kunye nesinyithi. I-Siluminiy (4-12% i-silicon), i-lautal (i-4% yobhedu, i-2% titanium), isikali - iarhente yealuminium ngobhedu, inickel, i-manganese, i-silicon kunye ne-lithium ziyaziwa ngokubanzi kumzi mveliso.

IAluminiyam kunye neealloys zayo zincede umntu ukuba oyise into yomoya, ukwakha ukukhanya kunye nokuqina kwezithuthi zikaloliwe neenqanawa zaselwandle. Akumangalisi ukuba i-aluminium idla ngokubizwa ngokuba yintsimbi enamaphiko. Amaphiko kunye ne-fuselages yomoya, iinxalenye zeemoto, iifreyimu zezindlu ezisemgangathweni, izitulo, iibhedi, iitafile kunye namawaka ezinye iimveliso zenziwe ngealuminiyam kunye neealloys zayo. ENgilani kuphela, kwiminyaka yasemva kwemfazwe, kwakhiwa ngaphezulu kwee-70,000 zezindlu zekoturi ezenziwe nge-aluminium. Izakhiwo zezikolo ziyakhiwa apho ukusuka kwialuminiyam. Izakhiwo ezikhulu ezenziwe nge-aluminium (kunye neplastiki) zakhiwa eMoscow-Ibhotwe leCongress eKremlin kunye neBhotwe leePioneers kwiLenin Hills.

I-aluminium ifuneka ngogesi, iideriors. Nangona ukuqhuba kombane kwayo kuphantse kube sisiqingatha esingaphantsi kobhedu, iileyile zealuminiyam ziyiphumelele indawo yethusi. Ngobubanzi obonelela ngokuhambisa kombane okufanayo, ziphindwe kabini kunobhedu kunobhedu. Ialuminiyam egcweleyo yinxalenye yeepeyinti ezininzi.

Xa igqabi elincinci le-aluminium foil lishushubeze ukuya kuthi ga kumawaka amathathu anesixhenxe, liyabengezela ngamalangatye amhlophe aqaqambileyo, avelisa ubushushu obukhulu. Ukusetyenziswa kwealuminium ekufotweni kwefleshi engenamsi kusekwe kule ndawo (ifleshi ye-magnesium ihlala ivelisa umaleko omhlophe obukhulu). Ukulungiselela iifoto, izibane ezikhethekileyo ziveliswa ngamacwecwe e-aluminium foil kunye nocingo olucekeceke, olunokutsha kakhulu. Xa ukuvulwa okwangoku, ucingo luyekisa i-foil.

I-aluminium esemhlabeni ecocekileyo exutywe ne-oxide yesinye isinyithi (i-iron, chromium, ikhalsiyam) ithatha ioksijini kuyo, ibuyisela isinyithi. Umxube we-aluminium nge-iron iron oxide ubizwa ngokuba yi-termite. Iqondo lokushisa lomxube liphezulu kakhulu, kwaye ke i-termite isetyenziselwa i-welding rails, iron kunye neemveliso zesinyithi. Bazaliswa yibhombu engabalulekanga kunye neeqokobhe lobugcisa.

Amandla e-aluminium yokuvelisa isixa esikhulu sobushushu xa sidityaniswa neoksijini esikhonza njengesiseko senkqubo yokunyibilikisa kwesinyithi esisebenzayo - i-aluminiummy.

Iinkqubo ze-aluminiothermy zafunyanwa kwaye zenzelwa ngokwesayensi nguNN Beketov phantse kwiminyaka elikhulu eyadlulayo. Ukususela ngoko, baye banda kuwo onke amazwe ehlabathi. Kwintsimbi yanamhlanje, i-aluminiyimmy asetyenziswayo kuphela ekunyibilikiseni i-iron, kodwa kunye nokunciphisa isinyithi esichazayo ukusuka kwi-ores - vanadium, molybdenum, manganese.


Ixesha lokuposa: Jan-07-2020